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STREAM Freight Transport 2016

Version 2

This 2nd version of STREAM Freight Transport 2016 (January 2017) has the following changes relative to Version 1:

  • The particulate emissions (PMc) of short-sea shipping vessels have been adjusted upwards. Because of the SECA standards, the figures in STREAM for this vessel category are based on emissions for low-sulphur diesel (MGO). An analysis of recent sources (2016) points to MGO leading to higher emissions than assumed in the original version. This change impacts on all tables and figures referencing the particulate emissions of short-sea shipping.
  • In Table 29, Table 30 and Table 31 the tank-to-wheel indices for CNG and LNG have been altered from 100 to 84, to correct a typing error.
  • In Table 35 the particulate indices for ‘HFO + scrubber’ and ‘LNG’ have been altered, owing to the change in the particulate emissions of MGO-fuelled short-sea shipping. In Table 60 the well-to-tank particulate (PMc) and SO2 emission factors have been altered, to correct a typing error.
  • Several literature references have been replaced by more recent or direct sources (reporting the same information).

STREAM Freight Transport 2016 is a handbook providing emission factors per tonne-kilometre for road, rail, inland-waterway and short-sea transport. For each of these transport modes the report gives representative average emission data suitable for exploratory (policy) analyses for which average data suffice. In addition, the report provides detailed factors with which emissions can be calculated for specific situations by users disposing over information on the types of vehicle or vessel employed and their mode of utilization (type of freight and class of waterway/road). Besides fleet-average emission factors for the year 2014, factors are also reported for individual vehicle technologies (such as Euro emission classes) and (alternative) fuels.

Besides the emission data, the report also provides extensive information on the sources and methods used.

The emission factors in this publication are not designed for direct comparison of transport modes. What they can be used for is comparison between various transport options, allowing for the particular distance travelled by each mode, for upstream and downstream transport and for freight transhipment. This is illustrated with reference to several concrete cases.

STREAM provides emission factors for greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O, summed as CO2-eq.) and the principal transport air-pollutants (PM10, NOx and SO2). Besides both exhaust and wear-and-tear emissions, the emissions occurring during extraction, production and transport/transmission of fuel and electricity are also reported.

Representative emission factors per mode, bulk/packaged cargo transport

Mode

Vehicle/Vessel

Type of freight

CO2 (g/tkm) (WTW)

PMc (g/tkm) (TTW)

NOx (g/tkm) (TTW)

Road

Large van

Med.-weight

1,153

0.148

5.03

Truck, medium-size

Med.-weight

259

0.017

1.75

Tractor-semitrailer

Med.-weight

82

0.003

0.29

Rail

Electric, medium-length*

Heavy

10

 0

0

Diesel, medium-length*

Heavy

18

0.005

0.19

Inland shipping

Rhine-Herne canal (RHC) vessel

Heavy

38

0.017

0.46

Large Rhine vessel

Heavy

21

0.008

0.23

Short-sea

General Cargo 10-20 dwkt

Heavy

15

0.005

0.25

* Share of electric: 70-90%; share of diesel: 10-30%.


Representative emission factors per mode, container transport

Mode

Vehicle/Vessel

Type of freight

CO2 (g/tkm) (WTW)

PMc (g/tkm) (TTW)

NOx (g/tkm) (TTW)

Road

Tractor-semitrailer, heavy
(2 TEU)

Med.-weight

102

0.004

0.36

Rail

Electric, long (90 TEU)*

Med.-weight

16

   

Diesel, long (90 TEU)*

Med.-weight

30

0.009

0.309

Inland shipping

RHC vessel (96 TEU)

Med.-weight

44

0.019

0.53

Large Rhine vessel (208 TEU)

Med.-weight

24

0.009

0.26

Short-sea

Container (Panamax-like,
4,060 TEU)

Med.-weight

21

0.008

0.35

* Share of electric: 70-90%; share of diesel: 10-30%.

Authors

Eelco den Boer
Matthijs Otten
Maarten t Hoen

Delft, January 2017

STREAM Freight Transport 2016 Version 2

Contact person: Matthijs Otten

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