This quite specific study gives a state-of-the-art overview of the emissions from ethylene and propylene transport by pipeline as well as competing modes. The comparison is limited to the emissions of CO2, NOx, PM10, SO2, and VOC per tonne-kilometre and is based on a well-to-wheel approach. Key information in this comparison is the energy use of transport of ethylene and propylene by pipeline. Therefor, three sources have been used:
- data found in literature;
- concrete information on the number and energy use of pumps and valve stations in a number of cases, provided by the client;
- a relatively simple theoretical energy use calculation model.