The Dutch Ministry of Innovation and Environment has teamed up with its German counterpart to organise an international workshop on the (air) pollutant emissions of the in-service inland shipping fleet. The discussion theme was the widening gap between the emissions of trucks and inland shipping. In preparation for the workshop, CE Delft drew up an input paper providing insight into the need for implementing measures in the current shipping fleet. The paper also discusses a number of policy instruments that can be used to reduce the emissions of this fleet. De following instruments are introduced and assessed: emission standards, environmental zoning, subsidies, emission charges, differentiated harbour dues and voluntary agreements. The paper concludes that while all these instruments have potential, implementation may be hampered by legal or economic constraints.