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Investment challenges of a transition to a low-carbon economy in Europe

What sets the pace?

This study investigates the challenges facing Europe up to 2050 in the transformation to a low-carbon economy. The primary purpose of the study is to provide greater insight into the factors setting the pace of decarbonisation, with a particular focus on capital, investments and how revenues are generated.

The outcome of our analysis underlines the sheer size of the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% and the far-reaching consequences that this entails for society. To achieve this aim, annual overall investment levels will have to increase to about 2% of GDP on average. Compared with the 2013 levels of investment in low-carbon technologies, efforts need to be increased by a factor 5, as things stand at the moment, and these efforts will have to be maintained for the next 35 years.


Martijn Blom
Sander de Bruyn
Arno Schroten
Dagmar Nelissen
Maarten Afman
Sebastiaan Hers
Ellen Schep

Delft, June 2016

Investment challenges of a transition to a low-carbon economy in Europe


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