This study, contributing to the IMO's long-term vision on a 'Sustainable Maritime Transportation System', examines strategies and measures that could be deployed to increase efficiency and reduce impacts on human and environmental health in port areas. The study focuses on identification of:
- existing and effective control measures and instruments to reduce emissions in ports;
- drivers and barriers via-à-vis measures to reduce emissions when ships are in port;
- possible instruments, including incentive schemes, and best practices for reducing emissions and optimizing operational efficiencies of ships when in port.
The work was carried out in cooperation with Starcrest Consulting Group and Civic Exchange.