As part of the transition to sustainable energy in transportation, the Dutch Ministry of Environment has identified 9 different options for future mobility without emission of greenhouse gases. The energy sources and technologies that these options use differ significantly, they vary from bio-ethanol in combination with fuel cells to electrical vehicles that run on sustainable energy. These 9 options are now being analysed by RIVM, the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment.
In this report, that was written for RIVM, we have taken a closer look at the institutional and political aspects of these options. We have first identified the institutional and political aspects that might play a role in the implementation of the various options, and then scored the options according to the institutional and political obstacles that we expect. We conclude that all options are likely to face institutional and political problems, although some of these problems can be more easily overcome than others. Furthermore, a lot will depend on the technical developments, future costs and the policies that we be put in place to define the boundary conditions.