This is a study on design options for a CO2 standard for heavy duty vehicles (heavy goods vehicles and buses). The following five main types of design options that have been implemented in other countries and/or that are of particular interest to EU policy makers were assessed:
- Engine standard & standard for the rest of the vehicle.
- Engine + transmission standard.
- Standard for the whole vehicle.
- Multiple component-based standards.
- Engine + transmission standard & standard for the rest of the vehicle.
Each design option was assessed on its effectiveness, market impacts, technical feasibility, and on its legislative impacts. The study is based on literature review and on eleven in-depth interviews with experts, policy makers, manufacturers and NGOs.