The Paris agreement requires significant steps in order to achieve reduction of greenhouse gases of 90-95% CO2 eq. compared to 1990 levels. One of the possible steps is the application of novel technologies like the reuse of CO2 in a value chain. This is attractive if can cover the cost of the capture of CO2, while the ETS-price level is still very low. In the two Dutch provinces of North- and South-Holland, a consortium of more than 20 public and private parties is launching an initiative (CO2 Smart Grid) aimed at utilizing CO2 as a raw material for a circular economy (Carbon Capture and Utilization, or shortly CCU). To this end, a network will be developed in which CO2 from different sources can be made available to different users. The proposed backbone of this network is the existing OCAP CO2 pipeline, which already provides CO2 from Shell in Pernis and ethanol producer Alco in Pernis to the horticulture sector in the Westland region for growth promotion of crops.
This study focusses on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of different CCU routes applicable in the CO2 Smart Grid. The results of this study can serve as input for a to-be conducted Social Cost Benefit Analysis.