To shift or not to shift, that's the question
The environmental performance of freight and passanger transport modes in the light of policy making
This report is a co-production of CE-Delft and RIVM. It presents and compares the quantitative emissions per passenger kilometre or tonne kilometre of CO2, NOx and PM10 for several well-defined, homogeneous transport market segments and for complete transport chains. To permit comparison of specific transport situations, for each transport mode several sub-categories are distinguished, including size classes, fuel types, peak or off-peak hours, urban and extra-urban, and, in the case of freight transport, bulk versus non-bulk transport. The analysis moves beyond the present to include the anticipated future environmental performance of the various modes of interest. In this report we make a clear distinction between 'raw', unprocessed data and application of those data. To ensure correct processing of these raw data we developed a sevenstep approach which was applied in this study and which we also recommend for further analysis of this topic. This report can be a guideline for comparing the overall environmental impact of particular policy alternatives. Such a comparison only makes sense if all potential factors of influence, direct or indirect, are duly accounted for, in particular: environmental efficiency effects, transport efficiency effects, substitution effects and volume effects.