The Netherlands is a major consumer, producer and transit country for raw materials and products that have a substantial environmental footprint elsewhere. This study examines the country’s role in the global flow of goods in two product categories: food products and fossil fuels. First the share of over 400 product flows in these two categories in production, consumption, import and export was established. For the 60 most important product flows Life Cycle Assessment was then used to determine the footprint with respect to climate impact, land use and water use.
The study distinguishes three roles of the Netherlands in the international flow of goods: