The coalition agreement of the third Rutte government sets out a series of measures seeking to address climate change. Among the key measures are a higher energy tax on gas and a lower tax on electricity, with the rebate on that tax being decreased. A minimum CO2 price is also to be introduced in the electricity sector. Together, these measures are intended to make emissions more expensive – but by how much exactly?
In this study we identify the likely impacts of the various climate measures, considering two aspects:
For both aspects we analyse whether the burden will be distributed more or less equitably with introduction of the new measures, thus evaluating the cabinet’s policy in terms of the two main principles of relevance for just and fair climate policy: ‘the polluter pays’ principle and ‘the capacity-to-pay’ principle.