Life cycle assessment of three types of passenger cars. Petrol, battery-electric and hydrogen cars compared

This study compares the environmental footprint and cost of three type of passenger car: petrol, battery-electric and hydrogen, in 2020 en 2030, focussing specifically on vehicles in the C-segment of the market, viz.:

  • petrol-fuelled: Volkswagen Comfortline Golf (1.0 TSI)
  • battery-electric: Volkswagen e-Golf (35.8 kWh in 2020; 71.6 kWh in 2030)
  • hydrogen-fuelled: in the absence of a C-priced hydrogen car, we took the Toyota Mirai, with a similar performance to the other two vehicles.