This study, an update of a study from 2003, analyses the environmental impacts, costs and hygiene pros and cons of various means of nappy waste disposal. Four routes were examined:
The study concludes that the first route, municipal incinerator, is the most attractive. In the composting and bio-digestion routes the presence of super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) and faeces are a problem. Separate nappy collection and processing causes by far the highest greenhouse gas emissions, owing to the high energy consumption of the processes.