In the Netherlands there is currently (spring 2005) considerable debate on the issue of ambient air quality, as standards for levels of particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are being exceeded at many locations. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency envisages continuing problems in many ‘hot spots’ even beyond 2010. The problem is held to be virtually unsolvable and scarcely amenable to influence by domestic policy. There are in fact a number of measures, however, that can already be implemented to improve the situation.
The environmental NGO Stichting Natuur en Milieu and the network of twelve provincial Environmental Federations are keen to bring some of these measures to the attention of policy-makers and administrators and to this end they have drawn up a ‘Top Ten’.
CE was asked to report on the effectiveness of these measures. Using published (case) studies, this report estimates the likely impact of each of the ten measures on emissions and ambient concentrations of particulates and nitrogen dioxide.