In this study the most promising options for energy saving technologies for rail transport have been selected and evaluated on their merits for use with the Dutch Railways (NS). This study reveals that while NS already employs many of the promising energy saving technologies, numerous very promising opportunities with considerable untapped energy saving potentials remain. Broadly, the more promising options belong to the themes of mass reduction, energy efficient driving style, traction and braking, and climate functions. Of these, we have explored in depth options related to 1) mass reduction applied in the procurement process and 2) energy efficient driving style. For the other options, traction and braking, and climate functions, further research on potential and feasibility is recommended.