Under the terms of the European National Emission Ceilings (NEC) directive 2001, the Netherlands has set ceilings for a number of substances to combat acidification and air pollution. These ceilings, for oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, non-methane volatile organics and ammonia, will come into force in 2010. No moves have yet been made at the European level to introduce an emission ceiling for particulates (PM10), but as these are a major contributor to air pollution and will certainly be covered by the next NEC review (ceilings for 2020), PM10 is already included in the Netherlands’ own annual reports. In this country the ceilings for the respective pollutants are allocated across the following sectors: industry, energy and refineries; transport; consumers; trade, services and government; and agriculture. Under the NEC directive, the Netherlands must report at regular intervals on the progress made on achieving these ceilings. By year’s end 2006, the country must file an official report with the EU on the NEC ceilings for 2010.
Against this background, the Dutch Environment ministry asked CE Delft to help them assess the impact of a series of additional measures to secure the NOx ceiling for the transport sector by 2010. In the report on this particular sector, the following options are included, all of which were quantitatively assessed for their impact:
- Promotion of EURO-6 for heavy vehicles and passenger vehicles.
- Reduction of sulphur content of so-called ‘red diesel’.
- Reduction of sulphur content of inland shipping fuel.
- Incentive scheme for vehicles running on natural gas.
- Quayside electricity for inland shipping.
- Differentiation of harbour dues for maritime shipping.
- A tax on airline tickets.
- European introduction of a kerosene tax.
- Emissions trading for aviation.
- Incentives for clean engines in the fishery fleet.
- Budget-neutral increase of diesel excise duty via reduction of vehicle tax.
- As 11, but via reduction of petrol duty.
- Joint reduction of emissions by industry and inland shipping.
- Retrofit of SCR filters on heavy road vehicles.