A fair mobility transition for all. Impact of climate measures on different income brackets

CE Delft made a rough estimate for Nature and Environment (Natuur & Milieu) of the behavioural and environmental impact of four measures that make sustainable mobility options accessible to households within different income brackets. The measures examined include: a high subsidy for the purpose of cheaper electric cars; an ‘out-the-door’ car premium; a scrappage scheme for old, fossil-fuel cars; ‘climate tickets’ for public transport.

The following conclusions emerged from the study:

  • The ‘out-the-door’ car premium and scrappage scheme measures mainly benefit households in lower income brackets. The purchase subsidy and climate tickets mainly benefit households with higher incomes, which means that the overall CO2 effect is also higher in these groups.
  • Most CO2 reduction can be achieved by measures aimed at discouraging car ownership and electrifying the car fleet.

The study made rough estimates taking into account travel behaviour and car ownership by income bracket. For each measure, a calculation method was drawn up to calculate the impact based on existing literature and data.