Energy poverty and heat transition. A study of policy instruments

Currently, between 234,000 and 634,000 households in the Netherlands experience energy poverty, depending on how it is measured. Without sustainability and given current policies for heat transition and energy price forecasts, the number of households experiencing energy poverty will rise by a third by 2030. This poses a threat to the success of heat transition. But if heat transition is managed intelligently, climate goals and the fight against energy poverty can go hand in hand. Policies that ensure that homes are made more sustainable, reduce energy poverty and have a beneficial effect on heat transition at the same time. It is important that this involves using a combination of subsidies, support and coercive measures in order to effectively reach households experiencing energy poverty. For some households, merely making them more sustainable is not the solution to energy poverty. This is where income measures are needed.