In transport and environment policy the prime focus is on road transport. However, as environmental legislation is taking effect, the share of road transport in pollutant emissions is declining (with CO2 emissions as an important exception). For non-road modes developments in emissions policy are generally lagging behind and data are relatively scarce (especially on shipping). In this context, EEA has asked CE Delft to write this working paper on the main non-road transport modes: aviation, shipping (both sea and inland) and rail. This paper gives an overview of the environmental performance of these modes, lists policies to improve this performance and maps barriers that prevent a steady improvement of the environmental performance.