The IKEA Foundation commissioned CE Delft to conduct an evaluation of the impact of the CO2 Performance Ladder (CO2PL), administered by the Foundation for Climate Friendly Procurement and Business (SKAO). Our evaluation is divided into two phases: a literature and data review (Phase 1) and an impact evaluation (Phase 2). This report presents the findings of Phase 1.
The literature review considered nineteen studies examining CO2PL and its impact. Studies by Dr Rietbergen (2015, 2016, 2017) conclude that the CO2PL had a positive effect on the adoption of carbon management systems in the construction and infrastructure sector, driven by competitive advantage in the tendering process. The potential impact of CO2PL in reducing Scope 1 and 2 CO2 emissions is estimated to be between 0.8%/year and 1.5%/year, with a value of 1.3%/year most likely (Rietbergen, M., 2015). In the period 2010-2013, the annual CO2 emission reduction rate in the construction and engineering sector due to energy efficiency improvement and fuel switching was 3.2% per year. In a first estimation, the study shows that about 1.0-1.6%/year of this reduction can be attributed to the CO2PL (Rietbergen, Martijn G. et al., 2016). Furthermore, the CO2 footprint of a substantial proportion of companies in the hydraulic engineering sector decreased by 7.8%/year in the period 2010-2015 (Scope 1 and 2) (Rietbergen, M.G., 2017).
No quantitative studies on Scope 1 and 2 reductions by companies have been published since 2017. There are insufficient quantitative studies available on Scope 3 emissions to draw conclusions on the effect of the CO2PL on Scope 3 emissions. Data on CO2 emissions provided by companies and compiled to date by SKAO are inadequate to investigate any evidence-based impact of CO2PL. In Phase 2, new data will be collected to conduct research on Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions, and additionality of the CO2PL.