This report presents the results of the study “Methodology for GHG Efficiency of Transport Modes” conducted by Fraunhofer ISI and CE Delft at the request of the European Environment Agency (EEA). The study’s objective was to establish a robust and dynamic methodology for a continuous set of indicators for measuring and tracking the greenhouse gas efficiency of the European transport sector. The methodology reflects the current state of knowledge in emissions reporting, is designed to be replicable by the EEA and is consistent across modes to enable intermodal comparison. The method comprises both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and includes high-altitude aviation emissions as well as suitable boundaries for lifecycle emission analyses. It was applied to the EU-27/EU-28 countries for the years 2014 to 2018 for five modes of transport:
For each mode, indicators are provided at two levels of detail: a top level addressing basic passenger and freight transport services, and a second level going into more detail in terms of vehicle classes and fuel types. The latter exercise, being more resource-intensive, still involves a degree of uncertainty. The results show that rail and shipping are significantly more greenhouse-gas efficient than the other transport modes.