Options for clean and efficient transport

For policy reviews of the revised European NEC Directive and the Gothenburg Protocol and the Dutch government’s climate change programme ‘Clean and Efficient’, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency commissioned CE Delft to update the existing option documents for transport emissions reduction for the year 2020. In the ensuing study the following options were elaborated in the form of factsheets.


  • Road pricing for passenger cars and light goods vehicles
  • Speed limit reduction on motorways
  • CO2 differentiation in company car tax charge
  • Lowering of tax-free rebate for business travel
  • Car scrappage premium on purchase of efficient vehicle
  • Lowering of excise duty on motor fuels
  • Speed limiters on light goods vehicles
  • More efficient tyres
  • CO2 standards for heavy goods vehicles
  • Hybrid buses
  • Emissions trading scheme for fuels
  • Kerosene duty for European air flights


  • Road pricing for freight vehicles
  • Incentives for Euro 6 heavy goods vehicles
  • Incentives for Euro 6 passenger cars
  • Increase in road vehicle diesel duty
  • Car scrappage premium for old vehicles
  • NOx charge for inland shipping + subsidy
  • Quayside power for inland shipping
  • Incentive scheme for particle filters for inland shipping
  • Tier III for fisheries
  • Quayside power for seagoing vessels
  • Differentiation in marine port dues based on NOx performance
  • LTO differentiation based on NOx performance