STREAM Passenger Transport 2022. Emissions of passenger transport modes

CE Delft has been publishing transport emission figures since 2008 under the name STREAM (Studie naar TRansportEmissies van Alle Modaliteiten). STREAM Passenger Transport focuses on providing climate and air pollution emission figures for the various passenger transport modes per passenger kilometre in the Netherlands that are comparable with each other.

In this update, the following emissions were reported for each of the vehicle-powertrain-fuel-type/energy carrier combinations: CO2, CH4 (methane) and N2O (nitrous oxide) (jointly expressed as CO2 equivalents), NOx, PM2.5 and PM10, EC, VOC and SO2. Both exhaust emissions (tank-to-wheel) and emissions released during energy production (well-to-tank) are included.

In line with the announced ISO 14083 standard, we have also quantified energy infrastructure production from power generation emissions, since the differences in these emissions are particularly relevant to solar and wind power. Other life-cycle emissions are not included in the emission figures.

We have developed a roadmap for calculating the correct emission figures for a trip or use of a vehicle. The report lists the main emissions (CO2-eq., NOx and PM) of different vehicle categories based on averages. More detailed key figures can be found via the webtool.

New to this study is an analysis of the effect of vehicle production and infrastructure on total CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre. We also consider CO2 emissions from the production of batteries for electric cars and how these compare to a petrol-powered car..

This study was funded by the Ministry of Infrastructure & Water Management (Ministerie van Infrastructuur & Waterstaat), NS, ProRail, ANWB, KNV, Milieu Centraal, Stimular and SKOA.

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