STREAM Passenger Transport 2022. Emissions of passenger transport modes

CE Delft has been publishing transport emission figures since 2008 under the name STREAM (Studie naar TRansportEmissies van Alle Modaliteiten). STREAM Passenger Transport providesclimate and air pollution emission figures for the various passenger transport modes per passenger kilometre in the Netherlands.

In this update, the following emissions were reported for each of the vehicle-powertrain-fuel-type/energy carrier combinations: CO2, CH4 (methane) and N2O (nitrous oxide) (jointly expressed as CO2 equivalents), NOx, PM2.5 and PM10, EC, VOC and SO2. Both exhaust emissions (tank-to-wheel) and emissions released during energy production (well-to-tank) are included.

In line with the announced ISO 14083 standard, we have also quantified the emissions related to the construction of the energy infrastructure in connection with the production of fuel and power. These emissions are particularly relevant to solar and wind power. Other life-cycle emissions are not included in the emission figures.

We have developed a step-by-step plan for calculating the correct emission figures for a trip or use of a vehicle. The report lists the main emissions (CO2-eq., NOx and PM) of different vehicle categories based on averages. More detailed emission figures can be found in the webtool.

New to this study is an analysis of the effect of vehicle production and infrastructure on total CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre. We also consider CO2 emissions from the production of batteries for electric cars and compare the life-cycle emissions with a petrol-powered car.

Emission figures will be updated at the end of 2023 and 2024. Would you like to be notified of any updates or other information we publish related to emissions figures for transport? You can subscribe to our STREAM newsletter at

This study was funded by the Ministry of Infrastructure & Water Management (Ministerie van Infrastructuur & Waterstaat), NS, ProRail, ANWB, KNV, Milieu Centraal, Stimular and SKOA.

More about