This study, carried out by Ecorys and CE Delft, provides a state of the art overview of the internalisation of external costs of transport in urban areas. Various cases of urban road charging schemes and paid parking schemes in European cities and in other parts of the world have been assessed. The mobility impacts, environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of these cases have been analysed and compared. Based on this, policy recommendations have been made. The study shows that road charging schemes and paid parking schemes can be effective in reducing urban congestion and the environmental burden of urban transport.