Synergy and tension. Literature study into the coherence between different instruments for transitions and social tasks

The central government deploys policy instruments for various transitions (climate and energy transition, circular economy, climate adaptation, circular agriculture) and tasks (housing and nitrogen). Policy instruments that are based on one of the transitions or tasks may have an unintended synergy with other social transitions/tasks. This may also create bottlenecks or leave many opportunities unused. In this study, commissioned by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, we provide an overview, based on existing literature, of the synergies, bottlenecks and unused opportunities of these policy instruments.